A major challenge, some would call it a dilemma, that the world faces is how to be modern. The discourse of development, especially through the concept of modernization, is decidedly biased. It can be said that the intellectual precursor of modernization was the European enlightenment. In other words, the concept of modernization is actually coded. It is based on a specific worldview that is by no means the only explanation. However, the modern, rational, positivistic worldview is often passed off as the most legitimate perspective. For the bulk of humanity— the non-Western world—this is a major problem.
The promise of emancipation through continuous economic growth and technological advancements has also been a vain hope. The economy can never grow large enough; technological advancements can never be sophisticated enough; a state can never be strong enough; and so on.
In many countries, economic growth has brought turmoil. Rising GDP per capita is accompanied by widening income inequalities in many countries. In New York itself, the socalled financial capital of the world, almost 60 percent of black youth lack economic and educational opportunities and access to basic social security. Their plight is not significantly different from the inhabitants of Bangladesh even though the latter is considered the poorest country in Asia.